In 2001 the world's newspapers echoed a strange news. Some Farmers put classical music to their dairy cows to increase production. Far from being a myth of the rural world, several scientific studies supported practice. Melodious and slow rhythms work reduced stress in cattle and this, at the same time, producing an increase 3% in volume lactated.
The therapeutic effects, about human behavior and mood They are not unknown. Techniques like music therapy increasingly they are more familiar. But researchers not only cater to the beneficial effects for the body and mind, it is also important to know to what extent they can be modify the actions of a consumer, for example.
The latter scenario comes up short of a research report recently published in the journal Psychology of Music, in which the authors, Annika Beer y Tobias Greitemeyer, present preliminary findings of its investigations under the title “The effects of background music about the habit of tipping in a restaurant: A study in situ”.
In the guild of psychology, the effect of music focused directly to the audience is well known, but researchers at the University of Innsbruk (Austria) intended study If the behavior was changed when the music is in the background, something that just has delved.
Yes there are previous experiences that show, for example, what background music can influence purchase decisions in a restaurant. Research carried out by North and associated in 1999 showed that German songs inciting the acquisition of German wines, and lyrics sung in French did the same with the Gauls wines. Definitely, surprising consequences that deviate from the level of behavior modification that the common people could imagine.
For psychologists no limits. The way in which human behavior is modified depends on a number of hidden factors Matted after the neural circuitry of the brain, result of an evolutionary process that has taken millions of years, and phenological aspects; this is, Those due only to the conditions that have lived individuals (where it has been raised, religious beliefs, environment which has been linked, major events in your life, etc).
These phenological factors are those that can speak prevent deterministic responses and those forced to work with percentages: not everyone has experienced the same and therefore not everyone responds the same way to a stimulus dice.
Restaurants are not a new scenario for this type of work. Previously research has been conducted on the effects of slow music on the sale of alcoholic beverages.
North Team, Five years later, showed that the slow music background makes diners consume food with greater parsimony, which positive effect on the number of drinks that need to accompany the menu.
The real aim of Annika and Tobias work was to demonstrate the impact that music can stimulate prosocial behavior has on the number of people leaving tips in restaurants.
In 2010 It had already quantified the effect, but in a later study of Kämpfe and collaborators executed a year later was in doubt that music was really responsible.
There are those who defend the idea that the effects that music has on human behavior are diluted at present due to the increasing level of exposure to music one experiences.
With this antecedents, Annika and Tobias got down to work.
More profitable types of music
During the experimental phase three styles of different melody used: inspirational, melancholy and neutral. Feelings that arouse the first two types are able to stimulate prosocial behavior, the spirit of helping others, and since tipping is understood precisely as an aid to make work more profitable waiters or reward for service rendered with excellence, the researchers expected that both inspiring music as melancholic by teaming up with higher rates of tips.
On the other hand, to address the concerns of some other researchers, He judged that demographic segmentation in distinct age groups could provide an interesting perspective on the theory that the population is developing a kind of resistance to the effects of music on behavior.
Adults and seniors listen to music in completely different contexts so that differences in the percentage of individuals in each category that give tips in restaurants while listening to music shed light on the doubts expressed in other studies.
The setting chosen for study was a restaurant specializing in Austrian food located in Munich (Germany). In his letter also they appear with Italian wines and Bavarian nuances. According to the address of the local, The target audience are diners middle class and upper.
For two months, information was gathered as many customers as possible. Opening hours (six days a week 18:00 a 22:30 hours) It was the main limitation on the number of participants. Sampling was carried out 813 people, of which 277 payments made (although the sample represented equally both genders, men were primarily responsible for repaying the account).
To observe differences in age population was divided into two groups according to age retirement (65 years).
Finally, the songs were associated with each of the emotions previously established by people outside the study, and all the songs were unknown.
Annika and Tobias, after a hard work of data entry and analysis thereof, They could show that retirees were susceptible to prosocial stimulus derivative inspiring background music melancholy, It is the most obvious effect in the first case. For an average tique, in the German restaurant represents a 100 euros, tips elders were 4 greater euros that they left those who were still working age.
If you thought the benefits of music in restaurants was limited to creating an environment and a memorable experience for the user, you were wrong. Music can stimulate prosocial behaviors in those with greater empathy, on customers who do not listen to much music and diners elderly.
Keep this in mind can affect our earnings. Slow music, inspiring and lyrical prosocial could become one of the main allies of the restorers.